Pirates, hackers, and maverick entrepreneurs are socially contested for their radical ideas and face asymmetric competition from incumbent players who fear the disruptive potential of new business models. Another type of nonconformity is found in traditional sectors, where genre-bending organizations sometimes straddle existing product categories at their own risk. While nonconformity, genuine or feigned, may be the name of the game in capitalist economies, we need a better understanding of how illegitimate and stigmatized players manage to change the rules of the game and enable new models for competition—and for society at large.
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Last updated Thursday, 15 September 2022